- 1 Assignment One
- 2 Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.
- 3 1. Describe the key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology.
- 4 2. Discuss the main tenets of social constructionism.
- 5 Assignment Two
- 6 Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks.
- 7 3. Freud’s method of research
- 8 4. Feminist psychology
- 9 5. Nativism vs Empiricism
- 10 6. Criticism of Functionalism
- 11 7. The Elements of Consciousness (Titchener)
- 12 8. Contribution of Ebbinghaus
|Title||BPCC-106: IGNOU BAG Solved Assignment 2022-2023|
|Degree||Bachelor Degree Programme|
|Course Name||DEVELOPMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL THOUGHT|
|Programme Name||Bachelor of Arts (General)|
|Assignment Code||ASST /TMA / July 2022- January 2023|
|Last Date for Submission of Assignment:||For June Examination: 31st April|
For December Examination: 30th September
Answer the following questions in about 500 words each. Each question carries 20 marks.
1. Describe the key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology.
Ans: Jungian psychoanalytical psychology, developed by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung, is a branch of psychoanalysis that focuses on exploring the unconscious aspects of the human psyche. The following are key concepts in Jungian psychoanalytical psychology:
- Collective Unconscious: Jung proposed that the collective unconscious is a repository of inherited experiences and knowledge that all human beings share. It is a shared reservoir of the deepest human experiences, instincts, and archetypes, which are thought to have evolved over the course of human history. According to Jung, the collective unconscious is inherited and not learned, and it is the basis for the universality of myths, symbols, and dreams.
- Archetypes: Archetypes are innate and universal patterns of human experience, behavior, and thought that emerge from the collective unconscious. They are universal symbols and images that serve as the foundation of human personality, and they have been used to explain the mythologies and religious beliefs of different cultures. According to Jung, the archetype represents the collective experience of human beings over time, and it is expressed through cultural products, such as art, literature, and religion.
- Persona: Persona is the social mask or facade that an individual presents to the outside world. It is the role that a person plays in society and the image that they wish to project to others. According to Jung, the persona is necessary for individuals to function effectively in society, but it can also be a source of conflict when it conflicts with an individual’s true nature.
- Shadow: The shadow is the dark and unacknowledged aspect of the psyche, consisting of repressed and unacceptable qualities, desires, and emotions. It represents the unexpressed aspects of the psyche that have been rejected, denied, or neglected, and it often manifests in dreams, fantasies, and projections. According to Jung, integrating the shadow is crucial for a person’s psychological health and development.
- Anima and Animus: Anima and Animus represent the masculine and feminine qualities that exist within the psyche of both men and women. Anima represents the feminine aspect of a man’s personality, and Animus represents the masculine aspect of a woman’s personality. According to Jung, the integration of these archetypes is necessary for the individuation process, which involves the realization of one’s full potential.
- Individuation: Individuation is the process of becoming an individual, where the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche are integrated into a unified whole. It involves the realization of one’s unique potential and the development of a sense of meaning and purpose in life. According to Jung, individuation is the ultimate goal of human development, and it is achieved through the integration of the different aspects of the psyche.
Ans: Social constructionism is a theoretical approach that emphasizes the importance of the social and cultural contexts in which individuals live in shaping their identities, experiences, and perceptions of reality. The following are the main tenets of social constructionism:
- Reality is socially constructed: According to social constructionism, there is no objective or universal reality that exists independently of social and cultural contexts. Rather, reality is a product of social interactions and negotiations among individuals and groups. Social constructionists argue that different social groups construct their own versions of reality based on their unique experiences and perspectives.
- Language shapes our experiences: Social constructionists emphasize the importance of language in shaping our experiences and perceptions of reality. Language is seen as a primary tool for constructing and maintaining social reality. Different social groups may use different language to describe the same phenomena, resulting in different perceptions and experiences of reality.
- Knowledge is situated: Social constructionists reject the idea of a single, objective truth that exists independently of social and cultural contexts. Instead, they argue that knowledge is situated in specific social and cultural contexts, and is constructed through social interactions and negotiations. Different social groups may have different ways of knowing and understanding the world based on their unique experiences and perspectives.
- Power and oppression are inherent in social constructions: Social constructionists argue that social constructions are not neutral or objective, but are instead influenced by power dynamics and social hierarchies. Different social groups have different levels of power and influence over the construction of social reality, which can result in the marginalization and oppression of certain groups.
- Change is possible: Social constructionists believe that social reality is not fixed or static, but is instead constantly changing and evolving. Social constructions can be challenged and transformed through social movements, activism, and the creation of new language and social practices.
Answer the following questions in about 100 words each. Each question carries 5 marks.
3. Freud’s method of research
Ans: Freud’s method of research is often referred to as psychoanalysis. This approach involved gathering data through in-depth interviews, free association, and dream analysis. Freud believed that by examining a patient’s unconscious thoughts and experiences, he could uncover the root cause of their psychological problems. This process involved interpreting the patient’s words and behaviors to reveal unconscious conflicts and desires. Critics have pointed out that Freud’s method of research is subjective and lacks empirical evidence. Nevertheless, his approach paved the way for the development of psychotherapy and the understanding of the unconscious mind in psychology.
4. Feminist psychology
Ans: Feminist psychology is a field of psychology that emphasizes the intersection of gender and social justice in the study of human behavior and experiences. Feminist psychology emerged in the 1960s and 1970s as a response to the male-dominated and androcentric nature of psychology at the time.
Feminist psychology is grounded in the idea that traditional psychological theories and research have neglected women’s experiences, perspectives, and contributions. Feminist psychologists seek to challenge traditional gender roles and stereotypes, and to understand how these roles and stereotypes affect people’s mental health, well-being, and opportunities.
Feminist psychology also emphasizes the importance of considering intersectionality, or the ways in which gender intersects with other aspects of identity such as race, class, and sexuality. This intersectional approach recognizes that individuals’ experiences are shaped not only by their gender, but by their other identities and social contexts.
Some key topics of study within feminist psychology include gender socialization, gender-based violence, sexism and misogyny, gender and work, and feminist therapy. Feminist psychology has also contributed to the development of new research methods, such as participatory action research, which involves collaboration between researchers and community members to study social issues and create social change.
5. Nativism vs Empiricism
Ans: Nativism and empiricism are two contrasting approaches to understanding the acquisition of knowledge and the development of cognitive abilities.
Nativism is the view that certain cognitive abilities and knowledge are innate or present at birth. According to this view, humans are born with certain predispositions, or “mental modules,” that allow them to process and understand certain types of information more easily than others. For example, nativists argue that language acquisition is facilitated by an innate language module that allows children to quickly learn the rules of grammar.
Empiricism, on the other hand, is the view that all knowledge is acquired through sensory experience and observation. According to this view, the mind at birth is a “blank slate” or tabula rasa, and all knowledge and cognitive abilities are learned through experience. Empiricists believe that cognitive processes such as language acquisition, reasoning, and problem-solving are the result of environmental factors, such as exposure to language and problem-solving situations.
These two views have been debated by philosophers and psychologists for centuries, and there is still no consensus on which view is more accurate. However, most contemporary theories of cognitive development recognize that both innate factors and environmental factors play important roles in shaping the development of cognitive abilities.
For example, modern theories of language development recognize that children are born with an innate ability to learn language, but that this ability is shaped and refined by exposure to language in their environment. Similarly, theories of social and emotional development recognize that infants are born with certain innate predispositions for social interaction, but that these predispositions are shaped and modified by their social experiences.
6. Criticism of Functionalism
Ans: Functionalism is a theoretical approach in sociology that emphasizes the importance of social structures and institutions in maintaining social order and stability. While functionalism has been influential in shaping sociological thought, it has also faced several criticisms.
- Conservative Bias: One major criticism of functionalism is that it tends to reinforce the status quo and maintain the existing power structures in society. Because functionalism emphasizes the importance of social structures and institutions in maintaining social order, it can be seen as justifying inequality and oppression.
- Overemphasis on Stability: Functionalism emphasizes the importance of social stability, which can sometimes come at the expense of individual freedoms and rights. This approach can be criticized for prioritizing order and stability over other important social values, such as freedom and equality.
- Lack of Agency: Functionalism tends to downplay the agency of individuals and their ability to shape and change social structures. This can lead to an overly deterministic view of society, in which individuals are seen as passive recipients of social norms and values.
- Ignoring Conflict and Change: Functionalism tends to overlook the role of conflict and change in shaping society. Because functionalism emphasizes the importance of maintaining social order and stability, it can sometimes ignore the ways in which social structures are contested and challenged.
- Limited explanatory power: Critics have argued that functionalism has limited explanatory power, particularly in understanding the complexities of social problems and issues such as social inequality and social change.
7. The Elements of Consciousness (Titchener)
Ans: Edward Titchener was a British psychologist who was a prominent figure in the early development of structuralism, a school of thought in psychology that sought to analyze the basic elements of consciousness. Titchener believed that the mind could be broken down into individual elements, and that the task of psychology was to identify and analyze these elements.
Titchener identified three basic elements of consciousness:
- Sensations: According to Titchener, sensations are the basic building blocks of consciousness. They are the raw data of experience that are derived from sensory organs, such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Sensations are the most basic and immediate components of consciousness.
- Images: Images are mental representations of objects or events that are not currently being perceived. They are derived from past experiences and memories, and can be manipulated and combined in various ways to form more complex mental representations.
- Affections: Affections are emotional states, such as feelings of pleasure, pain, or excitement. Titchener believed that affections were the most complex and difficult to analyze of the three basic elements of consciousness.
Titchener believed that by breaking down consciousness into its basic elements, it would be possible to understand the underlying structure of the mind. He developed a technique called introspection, in which trained observers would carefully observe and report on their own mental experiences. While Titchener’s approach to psychology has been criticized for its focus on the subjective experience of individual observers, his work paved the way for the development of later schools of psychology, such as behaviorism and cognitive psychology.
8. Contribution of Ebbinghaus
Ans: Hermann Ebbinghaus was a German psychologist who made significant contributions to the study of memory and learning. Ebbinghaus is best known for his pioneering work on the measurement of human memory, and his findings have had a significant impact on subsequent research in the field of cognitive psychology.
Ebbinghaus is perhaps best known for his research on the forgetting curve. In a series of experiments, Ebbinghaus measured how much he could remember of a list of nonsense syllables he had previously memorized. He found that forgetting occurred rapidly within the first hour of learning, and that the rate of forgetting slowed down over time. He concluded that forgetting is most rapid immediately after learning, but that with each passing day, the amount forgotten decreases.
Ebbinghaus also developed the concept of “overlearning,” which refers to the idea that repeated practice beyond the point of initial mastery can help to solidify memory and reduce the rate of forgetting. This finding has important implications for learning and educational practice.
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For June Examination: 31st April, For December Examination: 30th October