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IGNOU: BGDG -172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023(Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture)

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IGNOU BGDG -172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture
TitleIGNOU: BGDG -172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023(Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture)
DegreeBachelor Degree Programme
Course CodeBGDG -172
Course NameGender Sensitization: Society and Culture
Programme NameBachelor of Arts (General)
Programme CodeBAG
Total Marks100
Assignment CodeASST /TMA / 2022-23
Last Date for Submission of Assignment:For June Examination: 31st March
For December Examination: 30th September
IGNOU BGDG -172 Solved Assignment 2022-2023 Gender Sensitization: Society and Culture

Section A

Answer the following in about 500 words each.

1. Describe the terms masculinity and femininity in India? Do you think it shapes gender roles? Explain.

Ans: The relationship between labor force participation, economy, and gender is complex and intertwined. The labor force participation rate measures the percentage of the population that is either employed or actively seeking employment. The economy and gender both play significant roles in determining labor force participation rates.

In times of economic growth, labor force participation rates tend to increase as more people are employed or are confident about finding employment. For example, during the 1990s, the U.S. experienced a period of economic growth, and the labor force participation rate rose as a result. Conversely, during recessions, labor force participation rates tend to decline as people become discouraged and stop looking for work or are laid off.

Gender also plays a crucial role in determining labor force participation rates. Historically, women have had lower labor force participation rates than men, but this has changed in recent decades. In many countries, including the U.S., women’s labor force participation has increased as they have gained more access to education and job opportunities. However, gender gaps in labor force participation still exist in many parts of the world, and women are often paid less than men for the same work.

For example, in India, women’s labor force participation rate is much lower than that of men. This is due to cultural and societal norms that restrict women’s access to education and job opportunities. In contrast, in Scandinavian countries, such as Sweden and Norway, women’s labor force participation rates are much higher, as these countries have implemented policies that support gender equality in the workforce.

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2. Describe the relationship of labour force participation, economy and gender question as a key focus. Support your argument by providing suitable examples.

Ans: Masculinity and femininity are cultural constructs that refer to the socially constructed traits, behaviors, and roles associated with being male or female, respectively. In India, these cultural constructs are shaped by a complex interplay of traditional gender roles, cultural norms, and societal expectations.

Traditionally, Indian society has viewed masculinity as being associated with strength, dominance, and authority. Men are expected to be the primary breadwinners and providers for their families, and to exhibit qualities such as assertiveness, courage, and independence. On the other hand, femininity is traditionally associated with qualities such as submissiveness, emotional expressiveness, and nurturing. Women are often expected to be homemakers and caretakers, responsible for maintaining the household and looking after the well-being of their families.

Gender roles in India are shaped by a number of cultural and societal factors, including religion, family structure, and education. Hinduism, for example, assigns specific gender roles to men and women, with women being expected to be submissive and obedient to their husbands. Meanwhile, the family structure in India often emphasizes the importance of filial piety, with women being expected to prioritize their duties to their families over their own personal interests.

Despite these traditional gender roles, there are some signs of change in India, particularly with regards to women’s roles in society. Over the last few decades, women have made significant gains in education and employment, and there is growing recognition of the need for gender equality in the country. However, despite these changes, patriarchal attitudes and cultural biases continue to persist in many parts of India, leading to gender disparities in areas such as employment, education, and health.

Section B

Answer the following questions in about 250 words each.

3. Critically evaluate the role of the family from gender lens.

Ans: The family plays a crucial role in shaping gender roles and expectations in society. Family structures, dynamics, and beliefs can significantly impact the development of gender identity and influence the opportunities and experiences available to individuals based on their gender.

From a gender lens, the family is often seen as a site of power relations where gender-based inequalities are perpetuated and reinforced. In many cultures, the family is structured around a patriarchal model, with male authority and dominance over women and children. This model of family structure is associated with gender disparities in areas such as income, education, and decision-making power.

Moreover, the family is also a site of socialization where gender norms and expectations are instilled in children from an early age. This can lead to the internalization of gender stereotypes and reinforce harmful gender-based assumptions and biases.

On the other hand, the family can also be a site of resistance to patriarchal norms and a source of support for individuals challenging gender-based inequalities. For instance, women’s movements have often used the family as a point of mobilization to challenge gender-based violence and promote gender equality.

4. What is Sexual Harassment at Workplace. Examine its forms.

Ans: Sexual harassment at the workplace is a form of discrimination that involves unwanted sexual advances, comments, gestures, or physical contact that create a hostile or intimidating work environment. It is a serious issue that affects individuals across genders and can have a significant impact on an individual’s mental and physical well-being, as well as their ability to perform their job effectively.

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Sexual harassment can take many forms, including but not limited to:

  1. Verbal harassment: This includes unwanted sexual comments, jokes, or advances.
  2. Physical harassment: This includes unwanted touching, hugging, kissing, or other physical contact.
  3. Visual harassment: This includes the display of sexually explicit material or gestures.
  4. Quid pro quo harassment: This occurs when an individual is made to feel that their employment status or advancement is contingent on their willingness to engage in sexual behavior.
  5. Cyber harassment: This occurs when an individual is subjected to unwanted sexual messages or images through electronic means.

Sexual harassment in the workplace is illegal and prohibited under federal and state laws. It is the responsibility of employers to provide a safe and respectful work environment for all employees, free from harassment and discrimination. Employees who feel they have been subjected to sexual harassment at work should report the behavior to their supervisor or human resources department and seek legal counsel if necessary.

5. Write in your own words the ‘construction of a girl child’ with suitable examples.

Ans: The construction of a girl child refers to the process of creating and shaping the identity of a female individual from birth, through upbringing, and into adulthood. This construction is influenced by various factors, including gender norms, cultural and social expectations, and personal experiences.

For example, from a young age, girls are often exposed to gender stereotypes that dictate how they should behave and what they should aspire to in life. They may be encouraged to play with dolls or wear certain colors, while boys may be encouraged to play with action figures or sports equipment. This can lead to the internalization of gender-based assumptions and biases, such as the idea that women are less competent or less capable than men.

Additionally, the education system can also play a role in the construction of a girl child. In some cultures, girls may be discouraged from pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM) fields, or may face limitations in accessing educational opportunities. This can shape their career aspirations and limit their potential for personal and professional growth.

The media and popular culture also contribute to the construction of a girl child. For example, the representation of women in movies, television shows, and advertising can perpetuate gender stereotypes and contribute to the normalization of objectification and sexualization of women.

Section C

Answer the following questions in about 100 words each.

6. Write a note on patriarchy.

Ans: Patriarchy is a social and cultural system that is characterized by male domination and power over women and other marginalized groups. This system is deeply rooted in societal norms and beliefs and is reflected in institutions such as the family, education, religion, and the state. Patriarchy perpetuates gender inequalities in areas such as income, education, political representation, and decision-making power. The unequal distribution of power and resources in patriarchal societies creates a gender-based hierarchy where men are seen as superior to women. Challenging and dismantling patriarchal structures is essential for promoting gender equality and creating a more equitable and just society.

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7. What is radical feminism.

Ans: Radical feminism is a political and social movement that seeks to challenge and dismantle patriarchal structures and power relations in society. Radical feminists view patriarchy as a pervasive and fundamental system of oppression that extends beyond individual acts of discrimination or violence and into the very fabric of society. This movement calls for systemic change, rather than simply seeking to address individual instances of discrimination. Radical feminists believe in challenging traditional gender norms and promoting gender equality in all areas of life, including personal relationships, the workplace, and the political sphere. This approach often involves taking a more militant or confrontational stance in the pursuit of social change.

8. What are reproductive rights of Indian women?

Ans: Reproductive rights of Indian women refer to the rights of women to make informed and autonomous decisions about their reproductive health and to access safe and affordable reproductive health services. These rights include access to contraception, safe abortion services, maternal health care, and protection from forced sterilization and sexual violence. However, despite these legal protections, reproductive rights for Indian women continue to face significant challenges, including limited access to healthcare services, poor health infrastructure, and cultural attitudes that discourage women from seeking care. Additionally, the Indian government’s population control policies have resulted in widespread abuses, including forced sterilization and coercion in accessing family planning services. Protecting and promoting reproductive rights is essential for ensuring gender equality and autonomy for women in India.

9. Define productive and reproductive work.

Ans: Productive work refers to activities that produce goods or services and generate economic value. This type of work is often associated with the paid labor force, including jobs in the manufacturing, construction, or service sectors. Productive work is typically valued and recognized in society and is seen as a key component of economic growth and development.

Reproductive work, on the other hand, refers to the work of caring for individuals and maintaining households. This includes activities such as child-rearing, cooking, cleaning, and providing care for elderly or sick family members. Reproductive work is often performed by women and is not valued or compensated in the same way as productive work. It is seen as a private, non-economic activity and is typically invisible in economic and political discourse. Recognizing and valuing reproductive work is essential for promoting gender equality and a more equitable distribution of labor in society.

10. What is mass media?

Ans: Mass media refers to the various channels of communication and platforms that reach large audiences and deliver information and entertainment to a broad public. Mass media includes television, radio, newspapers, magazines, and online media such as websites and social media. These mediums play a crucial role in shaping public opinion, influencing politics, and spreading news and culture. Mass media also has the power to shape and reinforce gender norms, biases, and stereotypes, making it important to critically examine and challenge the representation of gender in the media. Mass media has a far-reaching impact and is an important tool for promoting social and political change and for fostering greater understanding and connection among diverse populations.

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For June Examination: 31st March, For December Examination: 30th September

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