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BHIC-110: IGNOU BAG Solved Assignment 2022-2023

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BHIC 110 IGNOU Solved Assignment 2022-2023 HISTORY OF INDIA-1757-1857
TitleBHIC-110: IGNOU BAG Solved Assignment 2022-2023
DegreeBachelor Degree Programme
Course CodeBHIC-110
Course NameHISTORY OF INDIA (1757-1857)
Programme NameBachelor of Arts (General)
Programme CodeBAG
Total Marks100
Assignment CodeBHIC-110/ASST/TMA/2022-23
Last Date for Submission of Assignment:For June Examination: 31st April
For December Examination: 30th September
BHIC 110 IGNOU Solved Assignment 2022-2023 HISTORY OF INDIA-1757-1857


Answer in about 500 words each.

1. Was the Permanent Settlement successful in attaining its objectives? Discuss.

Ans: The Permanent Settlement, introduced by the British East India Company in Bengal in 1793, aimed to create a permanent revenue settlement between the government and the zamindars, or the landed proprietors, in order to increase the revenue of the government and to provide stability to the land tenure system in Bengal. However, its success in attaining these objectives is debatable.

On one hand, the Permanent Settlement did increase the revenue of the government. The British were able to establish a stable source of income from the land revenue, which was the largest source of their revenue in India. This allowed them to finance their administrative costs and maintain their military power. Additionally, the permanent and transferable nature of the zamindari rights ensured a regular flow of revenue for the government, as the zamindars were motivated to maximize their profits and thus paid their revenue promptly.

On the other hand, the Permanent Settlement failed to provide stability to the land tenure system. The settlement was based on the assumption that the zamindars would act as intermediaries between the government and the cultivators and would use their rights over the land to encourage the cultivation of crops and the development of agriculture. However, this assumption proved to be incorrect as the zamindars often exploited the cultivators, forcing them to pay high rents and engaging in oppressive practices. This led to widespread poverty and rural unrest in Bengal, which was not conducive to the stability of the land tenure system.

Moreover, the high revenue demands placed on the zamindars by the government often resulted in the sale of their zamindaris to moneylenders, who in turn exploited the cultivators. This led to a transfer of wealth from the cultivators to the moneylenders and resulted in widespread rural indebtedness. The Permanent Settlement also failed to keep pace with the changing economic conditions, as the revenue demands remained fixed while the costs of cultivation and the prices of agricultural products fluctuated.

In addition, the Permanent Settlement failed to account for the changing demographics of Bengal, as the population grew and new lands were brought under cultivation. This led to the creation of a class of landless cultivators who were not protected by the settlement and were often subjected to exploitation by the zamindars and the moneylenders.

2. How did the Utilitarians intervene in the Indian society? Comment.

Ans: The Utilitarians were a group of British intellectuals and politicians who were influenced by the philosophy of utilitarianism, which emphasized the greatest good for the greatest number of people. During the 19th century, many Utilitarian thinkers and policymakers became involved in the administration of British India and sought to intervene in Indian society in order to promote the well-being of the Indian people.

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One of the main ways in which the Utilitarians intervened in Indian society was through their advocacy for social and economic reforms. They believed that traditional Indian society was rigid and unjust, and sought to introduce reforms that would promote individual freedom and equality. For example, they advocated for the abolition of the caste system, the legalization of widow remarriage, and the promotion of women’s education. They also promoted policies aimed at promoting economic development, such as the encouragement of trade and industry, the establishment of a modern banking system, and the development of infrastructure such as roads and railways.

Another way in which the Utilitarians intervened in Indian society was through the introduction of Western-style education. They believed that the best way to bring about social and economic progress in India was through the spread of Western knowledge and ideas, and they therefore established schools and colleges that taught Western subjects such as mathematics, science, and history. They also sought to promote English as the language of communication and administration, as they believed that it would enable Indians to participate more effectively in the modern world.

However, the Utilitarian intervention in Indian society was not without its challenges and limitations. Many Indians resisted the introduction of Western-style education and the abolition of traditional institutions, as they believed that these reforms threatened their cultural and religious heritage. Additionally, the Utilitarian approach was criticized for being paternalistic and for neglecting the complexities of Indian society and culture. Some argued that the Utilitarian reforms were imposed from above and did not take into account the needs and perspectives of the Indian people.


Answer in about 250 words each.

3. Explain the nature of the Ryotwari system.

Ans: The Ryotwari system is a type of land tenure and revenue collection system prevalent in India. The term “Ryotwari” is derived from the Sanskrit word “ryot” meaning cultivator or tiller of the soil. Under this system, land is granted directly to the cultivator who has the right to occupy, cultivate and use the land. There are no intermediaries or intermediaries between the cultivator and the state in the Ryotwari system.

In the Ryotwari system, each cultivator is recognized as the owner of the land he cultivates. The state recognizes and records the ownership of the land in the name of the cultivator. The cultivator is responsible for paying the revenue to the state, which is the primary source of revenue for the government. The revenue is collected by the government through a system of assessments, based on the area of land cultivated, the type of crops grown, and other factors.

The Ryotwari system is prevalent in southern India, particularly in the states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, and Karnataka. In these states, the land is usually irrigated and fertile, and the cultivators have a clear understanding of their landholdings. The system is well-suited to the conditions in these states, as it provides the cultivators with the security of ownership and the right to use their land as they see fit.

4. Discuss the debate on the spread of English education during the early colonial period.

Ans: The spread of English education during the early colonial period in India was a highly debated issue. On one hand, the British saw education as a means of exerting control over the Indian population and spreading British culture and values. On the other hand, many Indian intellectuals saw education as a means of obtaining knowledge, modernizing Indian society, and improving the Indian economy.

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The British believed that education was necessary to create a class of educated Indians who would assist them in governing India. They introduced English as the medium of instruction in schools, as they believed that English was the language of the educated and would give Indians access to the wealth of knowledge and culture of the West. However, the spread of English education was limited, as the British only established schools in the cities, and the majority of the Indian population lived in rural areas.

Many Indian intellectuals, such as Rabindranath Tagore and Mahatma Gandhi, saw education as a means of modernizing Indian society and improving the Indian economy. They believed that education was necessary for the development of the country, and that it should be made available to everyone, regardless of their social or economic status. They also argued that education should be in the native language of the people, as this would make it more accessible and increase its impact.

The debate on the spread of English education was further complicated by the tension between the British and Indian nationalist movements. Some Indian nationalists saw the spread of English education as a tool of British domination, while others saw it as a means of liberating India from British rule.

5. Were the British able to implement the rule of law in India? Discuss.

Ans: The British attempted to implement the rule of law in India, but their efforts were largely successful only in certain areas and among certain segments of the population.

The British introduced a new legal system in India that was based on the principles of the common law and was intended to promote fairness, predictability, and consistency in the administration of justice. The British also established a number of courts and tribunals, and appointed judges, magistrates, and lawyers to enforce the new legal system.

However, the rule of law was not equally applied to all segments of the population. The British legal system favored the interests of the British and the Indian elite, and often disregarded the rights and interests of the Indian masses. For example, Indian laws and customs were often ignored, and British laws were applied in a manner that was inconsistent with Indian traditions and values. This led to widespread dissatisfaction and resistance among the Indian population.

In addition, the British lacked the resources and the political will to enforce the rule of law in large parts of India, particularly in rural areas. As a result, many areas of India remained outside the purview of the British legal system, and local disputes were often settled through traditional means.


Answer in about 100 words each.

6. Santal rebellion.

Ans: The Santal rebellion was a peasant uprising that took place in the Santal Parganas region of eastern India in the late 19th century. The Santals, a tribal community, rose up against the British colonial authorities and the local zamindars (landlords) who had oppressed and exploited them for generations. The rebellion was sparked by a number of factors, including the forced eviction of the Santals from their ancestral lands, the imposition of high taxes, and the widespread corruption and injustice in the colonial legal system. The rebellion was led by a Santal leader named Sidhu and Kanhu Murmu, and lasted for several months, during which the Santals launched a series of attacks against British officials, zamindars, and their properties. Although the rebellion was eventually crushed by the British, it was an important moment in Indian history and represented one of the earliest instances of resistance against British rule.

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7. Mahalwari Settlement.

Ans: The Mahalwari Settlement was a land revenue system introduced by the British in northern India in the 19th century. It aimed to reform the revenue collection system and increase the revenue collected by the British colonial authorities. The Mahalwari system was based on the idea of assessing the revenue on a village-by-village basis, rather than on individual plots of land. The revenue was collected by the British revenue officials, who were assisted by local leaders and intermediaries. The Mahalwari system was introduced in several provinces in northern India, including the Punjab, the North-West Provinces, and Oudh.

The Mahalwari system was criticized by Indian landowners, who argued that it was unfair and resulted in the imposition of high revenue assessments. They also argued that the system was poorly administered, and that it resulted in widespread corruption and abuse of power by the revenue officials and intermediaries. The Mahalwari system was eventually replaced by the Ryotwari system in many areas, as the British realized that the Mahalwari system was not effective in increasing revenue collection and was leading to widespread discontent among the Indian population.

8. Orientalists.

Ans: Orientalists were a group of European scholars and intellectuals who studied the cultures, languages, and civilizations of the “Orient,” including the Middle East and Asia. During the 19th century, many Orientalists worked in British colonial India, studying and documenting the country’s rich cultural heritage and history. They made significant contributions to the fields of Indology, Sanskrit studies, and archaeology, and their works helped to shape Western perceptions of India and its culture.

However, Orientalism was also criticized for being Eurocentric and for imposing Western interpretations and categories onto non-Western societies. Orientalists were accused of essentializing and simplifying non-Western cultures, and of neglecting the complexities and nuances of the societies they studied. Some Orientalists were also involved in the colonial administration of India, and their views and interpretations influenced British colonial policies and attitudes towards the Indian people.

9. Famines under the British rule.

Ans: Famines under British rule were a tragic and widespread phenomenon in India during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The British colonial administration was slow to respond to the growing food shortage, and often took measures that worsened the situation. Famine relief was often inadequate and mismanaged, leading to widespread suffering and death. The Great Famine of 1876-1878, also known as the Bengal Famine, was one of the worst famines in Indian history, claiming an estimated 5 million lives. The British were criticized for their policies, including their export of food from India during times of scarcity, and for their slow response to the famine. The famines under British rule had a lasting impact on the Indian population, contributing to widespread poverty and hunger, and underscoring the need for effective disaster relief and development policies.

10. Colonial expansion in Mysore.

Ans: Colonial expansion in Mysore was a key aspect of British colonial rule in India during the 18th and 19th centuries. Mysore was a powerful kingdom in southern India, ruled by the Wodeyar dynasty. The British East India Company sought to expand its influence in the region, and the Anglo-Mysore Wars were fought between the British and the kingdom of Mysore between 1767 and 1799. The Third Anglo-Mysore War in 1790 resulted in the defeat of the Mysorean forces and the annexation of Mysore by the British. The British installed a puppet ruler and imposed their administrative and economic systems on the region, leading to a significant expansion of their influence in southern India.

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For June Examination: 31st April, For December Examination: 30th October

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