- 1 Assignment A
- 2 Answer the following in about 500 words each.
- 3 1. Discuss the Woodrow Wilson’s views on Public Administration.
- 4 2. Highlight the major contributions of Peter Drucker.
- 5 Assignment B
- 6 Answer the following in about 250 words each.
- 7 1. Briefly discuss the types of authority put forward by Weber.
- 8 2. Describe the experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and its outcomes.
- 9 3. Write a note on Dwight Waldo’s views on Public Administration.
- 10 Assignment C
- 11 Answer the following in about 100 words each.
- 12 1. Comment on Kautilya’s views on Authority and Accountability.
- 13 2. List out the bases of Integration as suggested by M.P.Follett.
- 14 3. What is Barnard’s contribution on Decision Making?
- 15 4. What do you mean by bounded rationality?
- 16 5. Write a short on Immaturity-Maturity Theory.
|Title||BPAC-132: IGNOU BAG Solved Assignment 2022-2023|
|Degree||Bachelor Degree Programme|
|Course Name||ADMINISTRATIVE THINKERS|
|Programme Name||Bachelor of Arts (General)|
|Assignment Code||ASST /TMA / July 2022 & January 2023|
|Last Date for Submission of Assignment:||For June Examination: 31st April|
For December Examination: 30th September
Answer the following in about 500 words each.
1. Discuss the Woodrow Wilson’s views on Public Administration.
Ans: Woodrow Wilson, the 28th President of the United States, was a prominent figure in the history of public administration, and his views on the subject have had a lasting impact on the field. Wilson was a scholar of politics and government, and he believed that the principles of administration should be applied to the management of public affairs. In this essay, we will discuss Wilson’s views on public administration and their significance.
Wilson’s Views on Public Administration
Wilson’s views on public administration can be found in his famous essay, “The Study of Administration,” which was published in Political Science Quarterly in 1887. In this essay, Wilson argued that the principles of business management could be applied to the management of government. He believed that public administration should be studied as a science, with the goal of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of government.
According to Wilson, the primary goal of public administration should be to promote the public interest. He believed that the government should be run like a business, with a focus on maximizing efficiency and minimizing waste. He argued that the principles of business management, such as specialization, standardization, and coordination, could be applied to the management of government agencies.
Wilson also believed that public administration should be separated from politics. He argued that politics and administration were two separate spheres, and that politicians should not be involved in the day-to-day operations of government agencies. He believed that public administrators should be appointed based on their qualifications and expertise, rather than their political connections.
Wilson’s views on public administration were shaped by his experiences as a scholar and a politician. As a scholar, he was interested in the study of government and politics, and he believed that the principles of administration could be applied to the management of public affairs. As a politician, he was frustrated by the inefficiency and corruption of government agencies, and he believed that public administration could be reformed to improve their performance.
Significance of Wilson’s Views on Public Administration
Wilson’s views on public administration have had a significant impact on the field. His belief that public administration should be studied as a science has led to the development of public administration as a field of study in universities around the world. The principles of business management that he advocated for have been widely adopted by government agencies, leading to increased efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of public services.
Wilson’s call for the separation of politics and administration has also had a lasting impact on the field. The idea that public administrators should be appointed based on their qualifications and expertise, rather than their political connections, has led to the development of a professional bureaucracy that is insulated from political interference.
However, Wilson’s views on public administration have also been subject to criticism. Some have argued that his emphasis on efficiency and effectiveness has led to a focus on technocratic solutions to public problems, at the expense of democratic accountability and public participation. Others have criticized his call for the separation of politics and administration, arguing that it is impossible to separate the two spheres completely.
2. Highlight the major contributions of Peter Drucker.
Ans: Peter Drucker (1909-2005) was a management consultant, writer, and educator who is widely regarded as the founder of modern management. His work has had a significant impact on the way organizations are managed and led today. In this essay, I will highlight the major contributions of Peter Drucker.
- Management as a Profession
Drucker was one of the first management thinkers to propose that management was a profession. He believed that managers had a unique set of skills and responsibilities, and that they should be held to a high standard of ethical behavior. Drucker argued that management was a distinct discipline, with its own body of knowledge, and that it should be taught in universities and business schools.
Drucker’s ideas on management as a profession helped to elevate the status of managers and encouraged them to take a more proactive role in shaping the direction of their organizations.
- Management by Objectives
Another major contribution of Drucker was the development of the management by objectives (MBO) approach. MBO is a goal-setting process that involves setting specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for individuals and teams. The process involves setting objectives collaboratively, monitoring progress, and providing feedback.
Drucker believed that MBO was an effective way to align individual and organizational goals, and to ensure that everyone was working towards a common purpose. He also believed that MBO was an important tool for improving communication and accountability within organizations.
- The Concept of the Knowledge Worker
Drucker was one of the first management thinkers to recognize the growing importance of knowledge workers in the modern economy. He defined knowledge workers as individuals who use their intellect and creativity to produce value, rather than their physical labor.
Drucker believed that knowledge workers required a different management approach than traditional workers. They needed to be given more autonomy and flexibility, and they needed to be managed based on their output, rather than their inputs.
Drucker’s concept of the knowledge worker has had a significant impact on the way organizations are managed today, particularly in the technology and creative industries.
- The Importance of Innovation
Drucker was a strong advocate of innovation and believed that it was essential for organizations to survive and thrive in the long term. He argued that innovation was not just about developing new products and services, but also about finding new ways of doing things and improving processes.
Drucker believed that innovation required a culture of experimentation and risk-taking, and that organizations needed to be able to tolerate failure in order to learn and grow.
Drucker’s ideas on innovation have had a profound impact on the way organizations approach product development and process improvement, particularly in the technology and start-up sectors.
Answer the following in about 250 words each.
Ans: Max Weber, a German sociologist, identified three types of authority that exist in society: traditional authority, charismatic authority, and legal-rational authority.
- Traditional Authority: This type of authority is based on long-standing customs and traditions. It is exercised by individuals who have inherited their position of power from their ancestors. For example, in a monarchy, the king or queen has traditional authority because they have inherited the position from their parents or ancestors. This type of authority is often associated with a sense of continuity and stability.
- Charismatic Authority: This type of authority is based on the personal qualities of the individual who holds the position of power. It is often associated with individuals who possess exceptional qualities such as charisma, leadership, and charm. People follow charismatic leaders because they are inspired by their ideas and their vision. For example, Martin Luther King Jr. was a charismatic leader who inspired people with his vision of a more just and equitable society.
- Legal-Rational Authority: This type of authority is based on rules and regulations. It is exercised by individuals who hold positions of power because they have been elected or appointed to those positions. The power of legal-rational authority is derived from the legal system and is based on a system of laws and regulations that are designed to ensure that those in positions of power act in the best interests of society as a whole.
Weber believed that these three types of authority exist in all societies to varying degrees. He also believed that the type of authority that dominates in a particular society can have a significant impact on that society’s political, social, and economic systems. Furthermore, Weber suggested that the types of authority can evolve over time, with one type of authority being replaced by another as societal conditions change.
2. Describe the experiments conducted by Elton Mayo and its outcomes.
Ans: Elton Mayo was an Australian psychologist and organizational theorist who is known for his famous Hawthorne experiments conducted in the 1920s and 1930s at the Western Electric Company’s Hawthorne Works in Chicago. The Hawthorne experiments were a series of studies that examined how changes in the physical work environment affected workers’ productivity and satisfaction.
Initially, the researchers focused on lighting levels and productivity, and they found that increasing or decreasing the level of light did not have a significant effect on productivity. However, they observed that productivity increased regardless of whether the light was increased or decreased. This effect was known as the “Hawthorne effect,” which refers to the tendency of people to perform better when they know they are being studied.
Mayo and his colleagues then turned their attention to other factors that might affect workers’ productivity, such as social dynamics and work conditions. They found that workers’ social relationships with their colleagues, supervisors, and the overall work environment were more important than physical factors like lighting or temperature. They found that workers who felt more involved in the decision-making process and who had better relationships with their supervisors and colleagues were more productive and had higher job satisfaction. They also found that group dynamics played an important role in workers’ behavior, and that social norms and informal communication influenced productivity and job satisfaction.
The outcomes of the Hawthorne experiments had a significant impact on organizational theory and practice. They led to the development of the human relations approach, which emphasized the importance of social relationships, communication, and employee involvement in organizations. The experiments showed that employees were not just cogs in a machine, but rather, they were social beings with emotional and psychological needs that had to be addressed in the workplace. As a result, management practices shifted towards a more people-oriented approach, with more attention paid to employee satisfaction, motivation, and communication. The Hawthorne experiments also helped pave the way for later research on organizational behavior and the role of culture and social dynamics in organizations.
3. Write a note on Dwight Waldo’s views on Public Administration.
Ans: Dwight Waldo was an American political scientist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential figures in the field of public administration. His views on public administration were shaped by his belief that public administration is a vital component of democratic governance, and that it plays a critical role in shaping and implementing public policies.
Waldo argued that public administration is not just a technical field concerned with the mechanics of government operations, but rather, it is a political activity that is deeply intertwined with broader social and political issues. He believed that public administrators are not neutral technicians, but rather, they are political actors who play a key role in shaping public policies and implementing them on behalf of elected officials.
According to Waldo, the primary goal of public administration should be to promote the public interest and advance the values of democracy. He argued that public administrators should be guided by a set of ethical principles that prioritize the common good and the interests of the public. He believed that public administrators should be accountable to the public and should work to promote transparency and openness in government operations.
Waldo also believed that public administration should be grounded in the principles of democracy, including participation, representation, and accountability. He argued that public administrators should be responsive to the needs and interests of citizens, and that they should work to ensure that all citizens have equal access to government services and benefits.
Answer the following in about 100 words each.
1. Comment on Kautilya’s views on Authority and Accountability.
Ans: Kautilya, also known as Chanakya, was an ancient Indian philosopher, economist, and strategist. He believed that authority and accountability were closely linked and that a ruler’s authority was justified only if they were held accountable for their actions.
Kautilya emphasized the importance of dharma or righteousness in governance, and he believed that rulers had a duty to uphold the welfare of their subjects. He argued that rulers should be held accountable for their actions and should be subject to punishment if they acted against the interests of the people.
At the same time, Kautilya also believed that rulers should have extensive authority and power to maintain order and security. However, he cautioned that such power should be exercised with restraint and in accordance with the principles of dharma.
Overall, Kautilya’s views on authority and accountability emphasize the importance of balancing power and responsibility in governance, and his ideas continue to influence political thought in India and beyond.
2. List out the bases of Integration as suggested by M.P.Follett.
Ans: M.P. Follett did not propose a list of bases of integration in the context of calculus or mathematics. Rather, Follett was a social theorist and philosopher who developed a framework for organizational behavior and management.
Follett’s work focused on the idea of “integration” in the context of human relationships and group dynamics within organizations. She emphasized the importance of collaborative problem-solving and the integration of diverse perspectives and interests in achieving successful outcomes.
Therefore, the bases of integration as proposed by M.P. Follett relate to management and organizational behavior, and include:
- Shared goals and purposes: Integration can occur when individuals and groups share a common goal or purpose, and work together to achieve it.
- Communication and dialogue: Effective communication and dialogue are essential for integration. This involves listening to and understanding different perspectives, and working to find common ground.
- Power and authority: Integration requires a redistribution of power and authority, with a focus on shared decision-making and collaboration rather than hierarchy and control.
- Conflict resolution: Conflict is an inevitable part of human relationships, and successful integration involves addressing and resolving conflicts in a constructive and collaborative manner.
- Group dynamics and interdependence: Integration requires an understanding of the complex relationships and interdependencies between individuals and groups within an organization.
3. What is Barnard’s contribution on Decision Making?
Ans: Chester Barnard (1886-1961) was an American management theorist who made significant contributions to the study of decision-making in organizations. His work focused on the role of communication and coordination in decision-making, and he proposed a number of key concepts that have had a lasting impact on organizational theory and management practice.
Barnard believed that decision-making in organizations was a complex process that required coordination and communication between individuals and groups. He emphasized the importance of informal communication networks, as well as formal hierarchies, in facilitating decision-making in organizations.
Barnard also proposed the concept of “zone of indifference,” which referred to the extent to which individuals were willing to follow the orders of their superiors. He argued that individuals would only be willing to follow orders if they believed that they were consistent with the goals and values of the organization, and that they were being treated fairly.
In addition, Barnard believed that the effectiveness of decision-making in organizations was dependent on the willingness of individuals to cooperate and coordinate their activities. He proposed the concept of “cooperative systems,” which referred to the networks of individuals and groups who worked together to achieve common goals in an organization.
Barnard’s contributions to decision-making in organizations emphasized the importance of communication, coordination, and cooperation in effective decision-making. His ideas have had a significant impact on the development of organizational theory and management practice, particularly in the areas of organizational communication, leadership, and decision-making.
4. What do you mean by bounded rationality?
Ans: Bounded rationality is a concept in behavioral economics and organizational behavior that describes the limitations of human decision-making. It suggests that individuals and organizations have a limited capacity to process and analyze information, and therefore, their decision-making is often “bounded” by cognitive limitations, time constraints, and other factors.
According to the concept of bounded rationality, individuals and organizations are not fully rational decision-makers, as they often make decisions based on incomplete or imperfect information, and they may not always consider all possible options or outcomes. Instead, individuals and organizations make decisions that are “good enough” or satisfactory, based on their available information and the constraints they face.
Bounded rationality has important implications for organizational behavior and decision-making. It suggests that organizations must take into account the cognitive limitations and constraints of their employees and design decision-making processes that take these factors into account. Additionally, organizations must prioritize information gathering and analysis to ensure that decisions are based on the most complete and accurate information available.
5. Write a short on Immaturity-Maturity Theory.
Ans: The Immaturity-Maturity Theory is a developmental model proposed by psychologist Clare W. Graves, which suggests that individuals progress through a series of levels of psychological development. According to this theory, as individuals mature, they move through a series of hierarchical levels, each with its own unique value system and worldview. Each level is characterized by a different set of needs, beliefs, and behaviors.
The Immaturity-Maturity Theory has been influential in the field of organizational development, as it provides a framework for understanding how individuals and organizations can evolve and adapt to changing circumstances. The theory suggests that individuals and organizations must be able to adapt to changing circumstances and embrace new values and beliefs in order to reach higher levels of maturity and effectiveness.
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For June Examination: 31st April, For December Examination: 30th October